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Research on Fine and Efficient Irrigation Management of Golf Course Lawn

Number of hits:962019-04-27 19:03:27

    With the increasing contradiction between supply and demand of global water resources, on the one hand, the rapid development of the golf industry, golf lawn irrigation water will become an important aspect of urban water use, on the other hand, cities are generally facing serious shortage of water resources. Therefore, saving limited water resources is related to the current and future development of golf. It is imperative that the golf lawn adopts precise and efficient irrigation methods.


    Fine irrigation of the golf lawn, that is, on-time irrigation, on-demand irrigation, and efficient irrigation. The implementation of fine and efficient irrigation can not only achieve precise water irrigation, but also achieve water-saving effect, and help to improve management level and comprehensive scheduling ability of irrigation system, reduce management costs and improve efficiency. Accurate, efficient, integrated and scientific management of golf course lawn irrigation, and vigorously improve the level of golf lawn irrigation technology and management in China, which will contribute to the healthy development of golf.


    1 Estimation of turf water demand and formulation of irrigation system


    Reasonable irrigation is one of the main measures to save water in the lawn. Irrigation systems are a complex system that requires complex calculations of water requirements and a sound irrigation system to achieve water savings. However, whether it is watering through existing equipment or developing more water-efficient equipment, it is based on the basic theory of irrigation.


    1.1 Concept and determination of turf water demand


    Turf water demand is the basis for the analysis of the amount of water used for lawn irrigation. The way of turf consuming soil moisture is mainly the evaporation of soil between turfgrass plants and the transpiration of turfgrass. The sum of the two parts is called evapotranspiration or evapotranspiration (ET). Turf water demand is the amount of evapotranspiration in the whole green period or year under the normal growth conditions of turfgrass, expressed in mm.


    In order to estimate the water demand of plants, the reference plant water requirement is introduced in the water demand. The reference crop refers to an ideal crop. The reference plant evapotranspiration defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1797 is: highly uniform (8 -15 cm), the evapotranspiration (ET0) of green dwarf crops with strong growth, no pests and diseases, completely covering the ground and sufficient soil moisture supply [2]. It is based on meteorological factors and is calculated empirically or semi-empirically. The most common method for calculating the reference plant evapotranspiration is the Penman-Monteith formula. Consider the plant coefficient and correct it to the amount of plant evapotranspiration.


    1.2 Formulation of lawn irrigation system


    The rational formulation of irrigation systems is an important indicator to guide lawn irrigation. Irrigation system refers to four parameters of irrigation amount, irrigation time, irrigation period and annual irrigation amount, which are called irrigation quota, irrigation time, irrigation period and irrigation quota.


    1.2.1 Irrigation quota


    To determine the amount of irrigation per turf, it is first necessary to know the allowable deficit of soil moisture in the main root layer of the turf, that is, the difference between the field water holding capacity and the allowable lower limit value, and then calculate the amount of irrigation each time.


    1.2.2 Watering time


    The irrigation time includes the start time of irrigation and the duration of irrigation. It is mainly determined according to the use of the lawn and management and maintenance requirements. The duration of one irrigation depends on the arrangement of the nozzles and the flow rate of the nozzles.


    1.2.3 irrigation cycle


    After irrigation, the soil moisture is gradually consumed from a higher level. When the soil moisture reaches the allowable deficit water content, the time required is called the irrigation period. Obviously, the rate at which soil moisture is gradually consumed depends on the evapotranspiration (ET) of the lawn. The greater the daily evapotranspiration, the faster the soil moisture consumption.


    1.2.3 irrigation quota


    The irrigation quota is the irrigation amount of the whole year or a green period lawn, and the total irrigation amount is the irrigation quota.


    2 characteristics of golf course lawn irrigation


    The golf course lawn is the largest, most carefully managed, and highest-altitude lawn in all ball sports fields. Different and general landscape garden irrigation, due to the special characteristics of the golf course itself, such as the type of lawn, size, use requirements, terrain conditions, climatic conditions, site factors, etc., determine the particularity of golf course irrigation:


    First, the lawn of the stadium has a large irrigation area and requires a lot of water. A standard golf course is about 60-100 hm2, and the entire course is covered by lawn, which requires the golf course lawn irrigation system not only to meet the irrigation water consumption, but also to have the ability to comprehensively manage irrigation equipment.


    Second, the amount of water required for lawns in different areas of the stadium is different. The greens, tees, fairways, turfgrass species, and bed soils grown in the golf course are not the same, and the players have different requirements for their use. Therefore, turfgrass in different areas are different in irrigation amount and irrigation time, especially for greens, and irrigation management requirements are more elaborate. This determines the need for precise irrigation, and irrigation systems must be combined with different grass species and use areas for regional irrigation.


    Third, irrigation is periodic. The golf course has a large lawn area, and irrigation is not completed once. It requires strict calculations and a reasonable irrigation system for circulation and irrigation.


 


    Fourth, the landscape effect of irrigation. Different from general garden irrigation, the golf scene is beautiful. The lawn irrigation not only needs to meet the water demand of the turfgrass, but also maintains the spraying effect. The most important thing is that the irrigation equipment can not destroy the turf during use and maintenance, affecting the landscape effect.


    3 Fine and efficient lawn irrigation management


    It is precisely because of the particularity of golf lawn irrigation that it increases the difficulty of turfgrass irrigation. At present, most of the golf courses are equipped with a control system. By inputting the irrigation program, the controller can output instructions to automatically irrigate the lawn in the irrigation area, which greatly improves the irrigation efficiency and the level of turf management. However, in this process, it is still inevitable to be affected by human factors. The program input by the controller is mainly based on subjective experience. The lawn often has too little or excessive irrigation, and even rainy days are irrigated. Necessary loss and waste.


    How to combine the characteristics of golf course lawn irrigation, realize the precision of golf course lawn irrigation, improve the utilization efficiency of existing water-saving equipment, comprehensive and scientific lawn management is the hot spot of golf lawn irrigation research, and realize the automatic automatic management of irrigation It will also be the main direction for the development of golf lawn irrigation in the future.


    3.1 turf fine irrigation based on ET value


    The fine irrigation of the lawn is the basis of the lawn water saving, and an important basis for the automatic management of irrigation. As mentioned earlier, the theoretical irrigation water requirement of the turf is calculated through careful and complex calculations. For golf course lawns, the specificity of irrigation, in practical applications, it is quite difficult to calculate the water demand for lawn irrigation.


    In fact, ET-based irrigation automatic control should theoretically be the most scientific and reasonable. At present, some well-known irrigation equipment manufacturers are trying to monitor the weather and soil dynamics in the stadium by setting sensors on the stadium, and implementing irrigation with the control system. For example, in the use of ET to achieve automatic irrigation control, Hunter has developed a unique intelligent irrigation technology through ET control.


    The ET system consists of sensors and control modules that can be easily installed on the controller of the sprinkler system at any time. The sensors of the ET system monitor the main climate parameters in the control area, and calculate the transpiration (ET) of the site through these parameters. It is worth noting that in a large irrigation system consisting of multiple irrigation controllers, an ET system can be installed for each controller, allowing each controller to form a separate, fully automated subsystem. The ET system monitors the unique climatic environment around an irrigated area and is truly a “microclimate”, so the ET value is more in line with the actual situation. The control module can be customized for each plant site specific plant type, maturity, soil texture, terrain slope, emitter type, etc. (using the database in the system), if the local need to irrigate is not in the ET database The special plant can also be customized by the user. In this way, the ET data measured by the sensor in real time, combined with the individualized parameters of each station, will automatically generate a new irrigation program every day, and automatically adjust the irrigation time. This irrigation program takes into account the process of water consumption in a climatic environment and will only supplement the water that is actually needed. At the same time, the unique anti-wilting protection technology (WiltGardTM), in the extreme conditions of plants under the threat of water shortage, can intervene in irrigation procedures and provide emergency protective irrigation.


    The ET system avoids the subjective guessing factors in the lawn irrigation management, and truly realizes the timely and appropriate amount of water for different turfgrass. At the same time, this is also in line with the needs of golf course lawn irrigation. After research and practice tests, the ET system can save about 30% of water saving, and the water saving effect is remarkable. The ET system represents the cutting-edge technology of the golf lawn irrigation industry, enabling true precision irrigation.


    3.2 Efficient irrigation management based on computer technology


    The ET-based fine irrigation management provides the basis for intelligent automatic irrigation technology, and the central control system based on computer technology provides the possibility of intelligent automatic irrigation technology.


    3.2.1 Working principle of central computer controlled irrigation system


    In the early 1990s, the centrally controlled irrigation system began to be used in domestic golf courses. The central control system is mainly composed of central computer, sub-control box, meteorological observatory and other equipment. Multiple irrigation subsystems are automatically controlled and irrigated by outputting commands to the central computer. Therefore, the central control system automates the height of the irrigation system by automatically opening or stopping the entire irrigation system.


    3.2.1 Main functions of the centrally controlled irrigation system


    3.2.1.1 Intensive control function


    Usually the irrigation controller's automatic irrigation system, the irrigation area can be irrigated according to the preset program, however, to change the controller's program settings, the management personnel must go to the installation location of each controller. There is at least one controller for each golf course, and the total length of the fairway is usually 5300-6800m. As a result, the workload of the manager is very large. With the central control system, the management personnel only need to control the entire stadium irrigation area through the computer. The procedures such as the irrigation date, the irrigation duration, and the irrigation start time can all be completed by the central computer, so that the existing water-saving equipment of the stadium can be fully utilized. Function, centralized management of each controller, optimize scheduling, and improve efficiency.


 


    3.2.1.2 Monitoring function


    The central computer control system can monitor the relevant change parameters in real time to make the various devices in the best state. If these parameters are beyond the set range, they will automatically react, such as interrupting the operation of the system and realizing the system. Word management.


    3.2.1.3 Graphical interface operation function


    Irrigation water consumption data, irrigation run time and irrigation system status can all be directly reflected on the computer screen. The true two-way communication can keep abreast of the technical parameters and operation of the nozzles in each control area.


    3.2.1.4 Data storage and printing functions


    The central computer can record and store various tariff parameters on the day and check the recent irrigation conditions. Data query system and printing system can also be used to record, query and print the meteorological data, soil moisture, irrigation settings, irrigation process, irrigation history and other data of the entire irrigation community.


    The central control system can save manpower to the greatest extent, centrally manage each controller, and optimize scheduling. Therefore, the role of the existing water-saving equipment of the stadium can be fully utilized, the operation and management costs can be reduced, the irrigation can be more scientific, and the management level can be effectively improved.


    3.3 Integrated, integrated lawn irrigation system


    The golf lawn irrigation system is a huge system. To achieve fine and efficient irrigation of the lawn, it is necessary to give full play to the advantages of various system elements. If the ET system and the central control system mentioned above can be combined with the ET system through the central irrigation management system, the advantages of both can be fully utilized. The ET system focuses on the independence and difference of the control unit centered on the irrigation controller. The ET data is measured in real time by sensors, combined with the individualized parameters of each station, and a new irrigation program is automatically generated every day to automatically adjust the irrigation. time. The central control system focuses on the overall management of the irrigation system, making the data collected from the ET more targeted, and the central irrigation management control system data and program settings are more reasonable.


    At the same time, according to the specific conditions of the golf lawn and the particularity of irrigation, matching the appropriate controllers and nozzles to optimize the irrigation system pipelines, truly realize the fine and efficient fully automated irrigation system.


    4 Conclusion


    The golf course is the most water-intensive, and in recent years it has been criticized for the problem of wasting water. With the increasing contradiction between supply and demand of global water resources, it is imperative to adopt precise and efficient irrigation methods for golf lawns. Golf lawn irrigation technology and management level are directly related to the healthy development of China's golf industry.


    The continuous development of modern science and technology has made it possible to realize the precision, efficiency, integration and scientific management of golf course irrigation. Fine and efficient irrigation of golf lawn based on ET and computer technology can not only achieve precise watering, but also achieve water saving effect, and help to improve management level and comprehensive scheduling ability of irrigation system, reduce management cost and improve efficiency.


    With the application of new technologies and new equipment in golf lawn irrigation, the formation of people's water-saving ideas and the improvement of ideology, as well as the rapid development of China's economy, will surely promote the sustainable and healthy development of golf in China.
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